Environmental Issues in Pakistan Pdf

Environmental Issues in Pakistan Pdf

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Environmental Issues in Pakistan Pdf: Pakistan suffers from environmental issues due to many factors. However, we will be more focused on Lahore. Lahore is the 2nd most famous city in Pakistan after Karachi and 26th in the world. As per 2022 reports, the current population of the city is around 13,542,000 which is a 3.41% increase from 2021. Lahore is famous for various things like food, culture, history, etc. Besides, it is also known for being one of the most polluted cities in the world.

Environmental Issues in Pakistan Pdf (Lahore)

Reports claim that Lahore has repeatedly topped daily rankings in the world due to multiple factors affecting climate change. The city is shrouded in smog due to the combination of pollution and winter weather, disrupting flights, causing major road closures, and weakening the health of its citizenry. However, some of the major issues are as follows:

  • Air Pollution
  • Water Quality
  • Solid Waste Management
  • Global Warming

Air Pollution

Exposure to hazardous air results in a variety of health complications as reported, including asthma, bronchial infection, heart problems, lung damage, strokes, and reduced life expectancy. In 2019, around 128,000 Pakistani citizens embraced death due to illness-related Air Pollution, reported The Global on Health & Pollution. A combination of vehicle and industrial emissions along with other major factors such as the burning of crop residue, smoke, general waste, and dust generated by constructions are causing air pollution in Lahore, Pakistan.


  • Reduce nonrenewable energy like coal, natural gas, fossil fuel, etc.
  • Use of renewable energy like solar, wind, geothermal, etc.
  • A Forestation/Reforestation
  • Introduction of EMS (Environmental Management System) – Every industry must have a system to treat pollutants
  • Ecofriendly transportation
  • Green building

Water Quality

According to the research, 24% of the people living in Lahore are drinking water contaminated with arsenic, microorganisms, and nitrates. A survey found that 82% of residents do not have access to clean drinking water. Around 1.1 million including 250,000 children lose their lives due to contaminated water. The people of Lahore claim that this water gets mixed with sewage which is more dangerous for the people, leading to a higher risk of death. Some of the reasons for the lack of access to clean drinking water are rapid population growth followed by disasters such as floods and droughts, water pollution, water management, and poor agricultural systems, the researchers said.


  • Wastewater Treatment – removal of pollutants from wastewater through physical, chemical, and biological processes
  • Green Agriculture – This is one of the important aspects to prevent water pollution. A study shows that agriculture is contributing 70% of water resources which is why it’s very important. Also, it limits chemicals entering the water
  • Storm Water Management – As per the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), stormwater management is a great effort to lower runoff of the rainwater or melted snow in streets and other affected areas. Further, it will keep the water free from pollution.
  • Air Pollution – It has a direct effect on water contamination. So, to prevent water free of contamination, it’s also a good way to deal with air pollution.

Solid Waste Management

Solid Waste has been one of the major issues in Lahore, Pakistan. A study shows that 40% of solid waste is not collected and ends up on the roadside. Currently, it is reported that about 500,000 tons of total waste are generated each year resulting in environmental and marine pollution. In addition, it is also a main factor in blocking water channels. Besides, 60% of garbage/trash is collected and disposed of in open dumps. Therefore, solid waste in a city like Lahore causes a variety of diseases in public health like typhoid, cholera, dysentery, etc.


  • Incineration
  • Composting (A biological process in which microbes decompose organic waste)
  • Sanitary Landfill
  • Recycling

Global Warming

Research declared that global warming in Lahore is dramatically increasing as compared to other cities in Pakistan. However, it is said that several factors like vehicle emissions, fossil fuel, industrial pollution, and the burning of waste material are responsible for the decline in air quality in Lahore. Lahore is getting affected by global warming each year through human activities. These activities include generating power, manufacturing goods, cutting down forests, etc. As the city heats up, people across the city fall victim to many diseases like malaria, West Nile virus, dengue fever, etc.


  • Renewable Energy
  • Electric Vehicles
  • Plant a tree
  • Recycling
  • Reduction of C02 emissions
  • Refuse disposal system

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